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Researching Teacher Education and Training in England (Key Ethical and Methodological Concerns)

The present teacher education and training environment in England is characterised by schools and university partnerships and school-based only frameworks. There are however an increasing body of ‘independent’ teacher education providers. Out of this ‘new’ thinking has emerged labels and entities such as School Direct, Teach First, Troops to Teachers and School-Centred Initial Teacher Training.

This occurrence suggests that increasingly, research in teacher education and training is being carried out in a variety of schools’ contexts. This also provides researchers with a larger ‘ground’ in which to work and a diverse array of potential respondents and participants.

While there is always a ‘downside’ some may argue that the positives (such as the potential for ‘rich data’ and increased understanding of teacher education and training issue based on a wider pool of participants) out-weight the potential negatives–some are highlighted later in this article. Additionally, the highlighted negatives are also preventable with proper understanding and application of research knowledge and procedures. However, given this ‘new’ environment here are a few ethical and methodological concerns that I see as key.

Key Ethical Concerns

Increase in the pool of research participants and places means potentially, there is an increase in the number of people who can be negatively affected. This therefore lends importance to the need to promise and maintain both confidentiality and anonymity and for researchers to be vigilant in these matters.

A lapse in confidentiality and anonymity can have adverse effects on participants, bring the researcher and her or his affiliate University into disrepute and impact negatively relations between University, partnering schools and sometimes Local Educational Authority. On the extreme end of the spectrum of negative effects, a lapse in confidentiality and anonymity could lead to Job loss, or participants being ostracized especially when the research involves sensitive issues such as race, diversity, social Justice or culture.

It is my practice – where possible- to omit names and places in my research reports. However, if these are integral to your study they should only be included after obtaining appropriate consent from potential participants. The use of pseudonyms to conceal identities is a long-standing practice among researchers and continue to aid in achieving anonymity. Additionally, confidential information about children or staff should never be disclosed at any cost.

Other ethical issues which are akin to confidentiality and anonymity is openness, honesty and autonomy. As a researcher I always inform key people in the school and assure participants of their rights to withdraw from the researcher at any time, should they wish to do so, without fear of being penalised.

It is my opinion that if these ethical issues are not carefully attended to, they may lead to less than complete and honest responses from research participants which brings into question the research findings and conclusions.

Key Methodological/Procedural Concerns

The ‘new’ environment with its wide and diverse array of potential respondents and participants provides researchers with an enlarged participant pool from which to draw. This fact suggests the need for caution and care in selecting participants for your research. Participants must be ‘information rich’. Guba and Lincoln (1998) define ‘information rich’ participants as those who are able to provide insight into the issues being researched. It is worth stating here that inappropriate participants will affect the accuracy of the conclusions you draw and the potential impact your study could have.

The other key methodological or procedural concern is the need for a clearly defined research problem. In fact, getting this right, not only helps in selecting ‘information rich’ participants, but aid university based researchers to explain to potential respondents or participants in partnering schools the research focus and guides researchers’ actions and thoughts. Additionally, a clearly defined research problem also helps to determine an appropriate research framework or procedure (e.g. Biographical, Ethnographic, Phenomenological, or Applied Research) that could be used to solve a problem, data collection methods (Interview, survey, experimental) and data analysis approach (qualitative and/or quantitative)

So what have I said?

I said, key ethical concerns for researching teacher education in the ‘new’ teacher education environment in England are confidentiality and anonymity, openness, honesty and autonomy. Key methodological or procedural concerns are participants’ selection and clearly defined research problems. These are critical in light of the enlarged field of potential participant which emerges from the new environment.

Reference

Guba, E., G & Lincoln, Y., S. (1998). Competing paradigms in qualitative research. In Denzin, N., K., & Lincoln, Y., S. The Landscape of qualitative research theories and Issues. Sage USA.

Plastic Surgeon – The Education And Training Undertaken

If you have been wondering whether it is possible to adjust how your face or body looks in a safe and professional way, then you should wonder no more. There are qualified medical personnel who are well trained and experienced in performing surgeries that will give you the face and body you desire. You should therefore consider making an appointment with a plastic surgeon in order to begin this journey of self-fulfillment.

Who is a Cosmetic surgeon?

This is a medical practitioner who carries out both reconstructive and cosmetic surgeries. A plastic surgeon can decide to specialize in either reconstructive or cosmetic surgery. Reconstructive surgeries are focused on reconstructing defects on the body and the face. These defects are present because of a birth defect, or due to a disease, a burn or some form of trauma. These surgeries will correct areas of the body that are not functioning properly, and will also restore the proper form of these body parts.

Cosmetic surgeons are also able to carry out cosmetic surgery, which is conducted to change the appearance of a normal functioning part of the body. Cosmetic procedures are carried out on healthy people to enable them achieve the face or body appearance they desire.

Plastic and cosmetic surgery

To be able to conduct both cosmetic and plastic surgeries, a plastic surgeon requires more training than a cosmetic surgeon. This is because reconstructive surgery requires techniques that are way more advanced than the techniques used in cosmetic surgeries. Plastic surgeons therefore undergo additional training and education in order to attain their advanced skills.

Plastic surgery techniques

There are various techniques used by a plastic surgeon to carry out reconstructive surgery. These techniques include skin grafts, tissue expansion and skin flap surgery. Other techniques include fat transfer or fat grafting. Cosmetic procedures are carried out on the face, body and neck.

Procedures like rhinoplasty are used to enhance the facial balance while eyelid surgery is used to restore a youthful face. Breast procedures include breast enhancement, breast lift and reduction. Body procedures include the tummy tuck and liposuction to get rid of excess body fat.

Specialist cosmetic surgeon

A specialist cosmetic surgeon is accredited by the Commonwealth Government and is qualified to carry out reconstructive and cosmetic surgery. In Australia, the title of Specialist Plastic Surgeon is only used by surgeons who are approved by Fellow of the Royal Australasian College of Surgeons (FRACS). This means that a specialist plastic surgeon has advanced education and training in surgery. This means that they have undergone medical and surgical education for a minimum of twelve years. They have also a minimum of five years specialist training as a post graduate.

Benefits of specialist plastic surgeons

As with other surgeries, reconstructive and cosmetic surgeries come with several risks. Some of these risks include bleeding, the wound getting infected and also scarring. Even though you cannot get rid of the risks, you can always do your best to minimize the risks. The best way to minimize surgery risks is to consult a specialist plastic surgeon. This is because they have the training and experience to ensure you go through the required procedure in the safest way possible.

Network Support Schools – Available Education and Training

Numerous accredited vocational schools and colleges are available to provide an education in network support to various students. Educational training in this specific area of the technical support field can prepare students for a number of exciting careers. Prospective students will find that they can enroll in an accredited program to gain the degree they desire. With a variety of available education and training programs, network support schools can allow students to gain the skills and knowledge they need to succeed in this growing industry. Training is available at levels ranging from an associate to a master degree.

Associate degree training is available through various vocational learning programs. Preparation for a degree at this level typically requires two years of study in a variety of areas. Students can train for a number of professions when pursuing an associate level degree in network support. Possible careers can include working as:

  • Technical Support Help Desk Technicians
  • Network Support Administrators
  • MIS Managers/Assistants
  • Network Support Supervisors

…and many other related professions. Students can prepare for careers such as these by studying course subjects like:

  • Network infrastructure
  • Operation Systems
  • Internet working
  • A+ Certification Preparation

…and many other related courses depending on the desired career. Students who choose to gain an associates degree in this field can enter into the workforce or further education at the bachelor’s level.

Bachelor degree training in network support can be completed through an accredited vocational school. Bachelor’s degrees can be obtained with four years of study. Students who wish to earn an education at this level can train for a variety of careers. Career education and training in this field can prepare students for employment as:

  • Computer Consultants
  • Programmers
  • Help Desk Managers
  • Software Programmers

…and more. Students will need to study a variety of subjects in order to enter into these careers. Coursework can include technical support training, networking principles, report writing, operating systems, database management, and a number of other related subjects. Pursuing an education at this level will prepare students to obtain a masters degree in the field, or seek employment.

Master degree training and education opportunities are available from various vocational schools and learning programs. Students can train for their desired career with an additional two years of study in this field. Prospective careers for students can include employment as:

  • Network Administrators
  • Researchers
  • Database Administrators
  • Communications Analysts

…many other exciting professions. Training for any of these careers will require the completion of various courses. Coursework may consist of training in computer science, math, computer engineering, management, and more. And a number of other studies based on the desired career. Students who enter into career training programs at this level can expect to start the career of their dreams in network support.

Accredited educational training programs, schools, and colleges offer students the training needed to enter into their desired career. Accreditation is provided by various agencies such as the Accrediting Commission of Career Schools and Colleges ( http://www.accsc.org/ ). Full accreditation is proof that the education and training provided will be of the best quality available to students. By researching network support schools students can find the one that meets their personal education and career goals.

DISCLAIMER: Above is a GENERIC OUTLINE and may or may not depict precise methods, courses and/or focuses related to ANY ONE specific school(s) that may or may not be advertised at PETAP.org.

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